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Gorbunova K.A., Maximovich N.G. Types of karst water discharge in gypsum-anhydrite karst region // Europ. regional conf. of speleology.- Sofia, 1980. -P.61 /0,05/

Types of Karst water discharge in gypsum-anhydrite karst regions

K. A. Gorbunova, N. G. Maximovich

Karst is associated with the zones of active water exchange. The main condition of its development is karst water movement in thethickness of the rock from the recharge area to the discharge point. The term "discnarge" means karst water movement out of the karst massif. In the regions of gypsum- anhydrite karts several types of discharge are pickeled out:
I. Surface /spring/. The highest spring yields are observed at the contacts with gypsum and terrigenous rocks and in the zones of techtonic faulting.
II. Subaqueous: 1. into the river bed; it results in discharge increase and water composition change in the river; 2. into the bottom of lakes /karst, oxbow, atc./ that influences on thermal regime and composition of water and bottom sediments.
III. Underground /hidden/ into aquifers contacting with gypsum and anhydrite rocks: into groundwaters; 2. into other aquifers.
In gypsum-anhydrite karst regions the discharge points of karst water are detected by hydrochemical methods, by change of composition and mineralization of the water.