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Gorbunova K.A., Maximovich N.G. Typological zonation of karst in the USSR // Communication 9 Congress Int. de Espeleologic. Barselona,1986.-Vol.1.-P.191-193 /0,2/

TYPCIOGICAI ZONATION OF KARST IN THE USSR

Gorbunova K. A., Maximovich N. G.

RESUM
Les zones carstiques ocupen una gran part del territori de la U.S.S.R. Per a efectuar una classificaclo d'aquestes zones carstiques s'han pres com a critens basics els factors de tipus geotectonic i fisiografic. Els principis teorics d'enginyeria geoiogica I de tipologia regional del mon, desenvolupats per E. M. Sergeev s'han utilitzat com a criteris de divisio tipolgica de extensos territoris sotmesos a procesos carstics intensos, situats a diverses zones climatiques i amb una estructura geoiogica completa. Per a la realitzacio d'aquesta classificacid creuada s'han utilitzat dos sistemas independents d'umtats taxonomiques, essent els principals factors del sistama I'estructura geoiogica i les peculiantats climaiiques del terrirori objecie d'estudi.
Les categories neotectoniques esiablertes per N. I. Nickolaev (plataformes continentals, orogenies i geosinclinals) es ccnsideren com umtats taxcnomiques de la zonacio tipologica del carst del territori de la U.S.S.R. En el segon grup s'han considerat els diferents climes i paisatges. Els tipus de carst dels terriioris s'estableixen a partir de la interseccio del gruo d'umtats azonals amp les climatiques.
Easant-se amb ei metode antenorment esmentat. els autors han obtingut un esquema de megaxipus del carst del territori de 'a U.S.S.R. Aquests megaiipus es caractentzen per les condicions i les pautes del proces de desenvolupament del carst. L'estudi d'aquestes constants as I'unic metode possible per a la utilitzacio racional de les zones carstificades.

RESUMEN
Las zonas karsticas ocupan una gran parte del territorio de la USSR. Para efectuar una clasificacion de dlchas zonas karsticas se han tornado como principios ba'sicos los factores de tipo geotectonico y fisiogra'fico. Los principios teoricos de ingenieria geologica y tipoiogia regional del mundo, desarrollados por E. M. Sergeev se han utilizado como criterios de division topologica de vastos territorios sometidos a procesos karsticos intensivos y situados en varias zonas climaticas, con una estructura geologica completa. Para realizar esta clasificacion cruzada se han utilizado dos sistemas independientes de unidades taxonomicas, siendo los principales factores del sistema la estructura geologica y las peculiaridades climaticas del territorio objeto del estudio.
Las categorias neotectonicas establecidas por N. I. Nickolaev (plataformas continentales, orogenias y geosinclinales), se consideran como unidades taxonomicas de la zonacion tipologica del karst del territorio de la USSR. En el segundo grupo se han considerado los diferentes climas y paisajes. Los tipos de karst de territorios se establecen por la interseccion del grupo de unidades azonales con las climaticas.
Basandose en el metodo arriba mencionado, los autores han obtenido un esquema de megatipos del karst del territorio de la USSR. Estos megatipos se caracterizan por las condiciones y las pautas del proceso de desarrollo del karst. El estudio de estas constantes es el unico metodo posible para usar las zonas karstificadas de un modo mas racional.

SUMMARY
Karst is widely spread in the territory of the USSR. Geotectonic and physiographical conditions of the territory have been taken as principle in receiving schemes of karst zonation. Theoretical aspects of engineering geological and typological zonation of the Earth developed by E. M. Sergeev serve as a criterion in typological zoning vast territories subjected to intensive karst process development and situated in various climatic zones with complicated geological structure. Two independent systems of taxonomic units have been used in compiling cross-classification, the main factors of the systems are structural geological and climatic peculiarities of the territory under study.
Taxons of neotectonic zoning by N. I. Nickolaev (continental platforms, orogens and geosynclines) are considered to be taxonomic units of karst typological zonation of the territory of the USSR. Climate and landscape zones are the units of the second group. The types of the karst territories are established by intersection of the group of azonal units with climatic ones.
One the basis of the above-mentioned classification the scheme of megatypes of karst territories of the USSR has been obtained by the authors. Megatypes characterize conditions and law-governed regularities fo karst process development. The study of these regularities is the only possible condition to use karsted territories in the most rational way.

Complex development of the territories and protection of the environment are impossible without detailed study of engineering geological conditions and their variability in space. Karst widely spread in the territory of the USSR is considered to be the most unfavourable engineering geological process. Typological zoning is tne only possible way to reveal me conditions of karstification within the vast territory of the USSR of a complex geological structure comprising four climatic zones.
Papers by Maximovich G. A., Gvozdetsky N. A., Rodionov N. V., Tchikishev A. G., Parmuzin Y. P., Tsykhin R. A., Domin L. V., Bersenev Y. I., Mamatkulov M. M., Tintilozov Z. K. et al. are dedicated to the problem of karst zonation. In proposed schemes taxonomic units based on geotectonic or physiographical conditions do not reflect the total variety of natural conditions of karst process development and regularities of its distribution in space.
Karst is known to be conditioned not only by azonal structural geological situation/tectonic controlling the distribution of karstic rocks differing in age and composition/but also by zonal climatic one. The above-mentioned groups of different conditions should be taken into account when revealing the main situations of karstification.
Theoretical aspects of engineering geological typological zoning of the Earth developed by Sergeev E. M. and Ershova E. B. serve as a criterion of typological zonation of karst territories. The authors take into account two principle groups of factors and offer double-row cross-classification. They use two independent systems of taxonomic units: the first is classified by structural geological features, the second -by zone indications.
Taxons of neotectonic zoning by Nickolaev N. I. are considered to be taxonomic units of geostructural series of karst typological zonation. The modern relief which influences on the depth of vertical distribution and the thickness of active water-exchange and karstification zones has been formed by tectonic movements of Neogene and Quaternary age. Geological structures differing in ages and neotectonic movements correspond to first order large areas: 1/continental platforms with slight Neogene-Quaternary movements; 2/continental geosynklines or orogens with active neotectonic uplift movements; 3/recent geosynclines with intensive contrast neotectonic movements.
Platforms are divided into the ancient Archean-Proterozoic /I/ and young Epipaleozoic plates /II/ according to the age of foundation, orogens - into Baikal or Upperproterozoic /III/, Paleozoic /IV/, Mesozoic /V/, Alpine /VI/ folding areas. Recent geosynclines are Uppercenozoic folding areas, /VII/. According to structural conditions first order territories are divided into the areas of the second order.
Artic /A/, subarctit /B/, temperate /C/ and subtropical /D/ climate zones are considered to be zonal physical geographical units of the first order. Landscape zones are the units of the second order: polar, tundra and foresttundra, forest, forest-steppe and steppe, semi-desert and desert, mountain. Mega- and mesotypes of karst territories are obtained as a result of superimposing geostructural and landcape-climatic features of the first and the second order groups.
Megatype of karst territories is regarded as geostructural area with definite conditions of Neogene-Quaternary movements, expressed in the relief, within the limits of which ancient and modern karst, controlled by climatic conditions, develops.
On the basis of the above-mentioned classification the scheme of megatypes of karst territories of the USSR has been obtained.
Typological approach to karst zonation gives wide opportunities since it makes possible to take into account both regional-geostructural and zonal climatic conditions. Each megatype reflects conditions of karstification and is characterized by definite regularities of its development. The study of this regularities permits one to forecast karst and its influence on landscape.

Megatypes of Karst Territories of the USSR
Table. Following megatypes exist in the territory of the USSR:
I B, I C - the Siberian platform /SB/,
I C - the Russian platform /RS/,
II C - Turan plate /TU/,
III C - Baikal /BK/,
IV A - Taimir /TM/,
IV B - Paikhoi-Novozemelski /PN/,
IV C - the Urals /UR/, Kazakhstan /KZ/, Altai-Sayan /AS/, North-Tien Shan /NT/;
IV D - South-Tien Shan /ST/,
V A - Arctic Ocean islands /AO/,
V B - Kolymo-Omolonski /KO/,
V C - Argon /AR/, Primorski /PR/,
VI C - the Caucasus /CD/, Crimean /CR/, Carpathian /CA/;
VI D - Transcaucasus /TC/,
VII C - Sakhalin /SK/.


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