Лаборатория геологии техногенных процессов
Мaximovich N.G., Blinov S.M., Menshikova E.A. The influence of Kizel coal basin on the river ecology conditions // Abstracts XIII international Congress on carboniferous-permian.-Poland, Krakow, 1995.-P.99.
THE INFLUENCE OF KIZEL COAL BASIN ON THE RIVER ECOLOGY CONDITIONS
Maximovich N.G., Blinov S.M., Menshikova E.A.
Kizel Coal Basin of 200 sq. km area is located within the West Urals folding zone. It is formed of rocks of Middle Devonian, Carboniferous and Lower Permian. The rivers flowing down the west slope of the Urals cross the basin in the latitude direction. Pollution of the largest river Kosva is caused mainly by the discharge of raw mine waters (100 mill cub. m/year), runoffs from dirt piles, storage of waste after coal mining and processing, by-produced-coking and power stations at rivers banks.
Mine waters are saturated with suspended substances, ions of heavy metals and are characterized by acid reaction (pH = 2.32 - 2.85) ferrum - aluminium - calcium sulfate composition and mineralization of up to 17.9 g/l. The composition of runoffs from dirt piles to the river network is close to those of mine waters. Under natural condition the river water features hydrocarbonate calcium composition and mineralization of up to 250 mg/1, pH = 6.2 - 7.9. In the technogeneous pollution zone the water mineralization reaches 2 g/1, hydrogen index decreases to 2,5 and the content of sulfate-ion is increased.
Material of dirt piles stored at river banks falls into the river bed resulting in the presence of minerals not typical of alluvium under natural conditions. In area of pile storage pyrite (3-13%), jarosite (up to 4%), geothite (up to 4%), magnetite (up to 4%) were found. In the interval of 2 -15 km below the mining boundary there was found magnetite (1 - 2%), hematite (up to 1%) were fourd. In the mouth of the river the process of carbonization is seen. And the presence of siderite is noticed. Over the whole length of the rive, alluvium are found. We also observed lodestone and silicate balls and magnetite slag and coal particles. Technogeneous bottom sediments transfered for a long distance become the source of long-term secondary water pollution.
Hence, the Kizel Coal Basin mining as well as coal processing industry development result in remarkable change of water chemica composition and bottom sediments of Kosva river. As the laboratory and nature experiments have shown, the ecological situation can be changed by artificial geochemical barriers.